Russian Federal Space Program (2006-2015)

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Venera-D » Overview


The concept of Venera-D (Venera-Dolgozhivuschaya (long-lasting)) is the next step in the highly successful series of Venera and VEGA missions of the 1970s and 1980s. The baseline mission concept consists of an orbiter and lander with advanced, modern, instrumentation; the lander also contains a single Long-Lived In-situ Solar System Explorer (LLISSE). The mission science objectives address key questions about the dynamics of the atmosphere with an emphasis on atmospheric superrotation and radiative balance, the processes that have formed and modified Venus’ surface with emphasis on the mineralogical and elemental composition of surface materials, and the chemical processes occurring at the interaction of the surface and the atmosphere. For each baseline mission component, the following goals would be addressed:

Focused Orbiter Goals:

•       Study the dynamics and nature of superrotation, radiative balance, and the nature of the greenhouse effect;

•       Characterize the thermal structure of the atmosphere, winds, thermal tides, and solar-locked structures;

•       Measure atmospheric composition, study the clouds, their structure, composition, microphysics, and chemistry;

   Study the composition of the low atmosphere and low clouds, surface emissivity and volcanic activity on the nightside using near-IR spectral range.

•       Investigate the upper atmosphere, ionosphere, electrical activity, magnetosphere, atmospheric escape rate and solar wind interaction.

Focused Lander Goals:

•       Perform chemical analysis of surface materials and study the elemental composition of the surface, including radiogenic elements;

•       Study the physical and chemical interactions between the surface and the atmosphere;

•       Investigate the structure and chemical composition of the atmosphere down to the surface, including the abundances and isotopic ratios of the trace and noble gases

•       Perform direct chemical analysis of cloud aerosols during lander descent;

•       Characterize the geology of local landforms at different scales.

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